Marine Electrical Technology- Eleventh Edition

Marine Electrical Technology- Eleventh Edition

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Description

The role of an engineer onboard a modern vessel is multifaceted and requires the knowledge and application of multiple engineering disciplines. Also, almost every piece of equipment is either controlled by or fed with electrical power.

This book caters to the structured curricula for Marine Engineering Pre-Sea Students, Marine Engineers of all post-sea competency levels and Electro Technical Officers of the Merchant Navy. This book can also be used as a reference material for other related courses and in libraries.

Comprising of 24 chapters in simple English, it explains not only the fundamentals but also the constructional features, operating principles, maintenance procedures and rules that govern the safe operation of all important electrical systems onboard a commercial ship.

Extracts from SOLAS Regulations, IACS Guidelines, Lloyd’s Register, Det Norske Veritas and American Bureau of Shipping Rules, have been included with permission. Many world-class organisations and manufacturers have extended their invaluable support and enriched the content too.

The Teaching Guide at the beginning of this book suggests a standard teaching methodology. The question bank, with a total of over 1000 questions, covers all topics that have been explained. This edition also contains about 600 relevant figures, includinMarineg photographs that have been contributed by leading equipment manufacturers across the world.

Contents

Chapter No. Title Page No.
1 Overview of a Ship’s Electrical System 1
2 Electrical Safety 45
3 Electrical Equipment for Hazardous Areas 87
4 AC Distribution Systems 129
5 Emergency Power and Shore Supply 151
6 Isolated and Earthed Neutral Systems 181
7 Alternators 211
8 Automatic Voltage Regulators and Exciters 263
9 Fixed and Portable Instrumentation 297
10 Paralleling of Alternators 365
11 Switchboards and Switchgear 411
12 Starters for Alternating Current Motors 457
13 Fault Protection Devices 539
14 Electric Cables 613
15 Insulation and Ingress Protection 633
16 Electrical Propulsion Systems 661
17 Steering Systems 731
18 Deck Machinery 755
19 Batteries and Battery Charging 787
20 Lighting Systems 853
21 Gas Analysers 879
22 Alarm Indication Systems 907
23 Miscellaneous Systems 967
24 Maintenance and Troubleshooting 1017
Addendum
Overcoming Common Difficulties in Rotating Machines 1093
Index of Key Words and Articles 1095
SOLAS Key 1129

 

Chapter 1 – Overview of a Ship’s Electrical System
Article No. Article Page No.
1.1 The Marine Environment 1
1.2 Effects of Inclination 2
1.3 General Provisions 4
1.4 Installation and Basic Maintenance 9
1.5 Effects of Temperature 9
1.6 Systems and Major Components 10
1.7 Power Management Systems 22
1.8 Electrical Diagrams 29
1.9 Relevant SOLAS Regulations (Chapter II–1) 41

 

Chapter 2 – Electrical Safety
Article No. Article Page No.
2.1 Compliance with Regulations 45
2.2 The Inherent Dangers and Avoidance of Disastrous Consequences 50
2.3 Passive Safety Measures 53
2.4 Active Safety Measures 56
2.5 Fundamental Requirements for Safe Installation of Equipment 60
2.6 Dos and Don’ts While Working with Electrical Equipment 61
2.7 Danger Signals 65
2.8 Precautions for Preventing an Electric Shock 65
2.9 Conditions which Increase Danger to Personnel 67
2.10 Shock Risk with Portable AC Appliances 68
2.11 High Voltage Safety 72
2.12 Electrical Accidents 76
2.13 Maintenance of Records 83

 

Chapter 3 – Electrical Equipment for Hazardous Areas
Article No. Article Page No.
3.1 Tanker Installations 87
3.2 The International Electrotechnical Commission’s Ex Scheme 93
3.3 International Safety Standards 97
3.4 Ventilation when using Varnishes, Volatile Paints etc., Containing Solvents 126

 

Chapter 4 – AC Distribution Systems
Article No. Article Page No.
4.1 The General Concept 129
4.2. Common Systems for the Distribution of AC Power 130
4.3 Specific Systems for Ship’s Service 132
4.4 Distribution Systems Onboard Ships 134
4.5 General Distribution Scheme Onboard a Ship 136
4.6 Distribution Transformers 138
4.7 Isolation Transformers 143
4.8 General Scheme Applicable to all Types of Tankers 144
4.9 Example of a High-voltage System for a Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier 146
4.10 Primary Power Bus 148
4.11 Relevant Regulations 149

 

Chapter 5 – Emergency Power and Shore Supply
Article No. Article Page No.
5.1 The Method of Supplying Emergency Power 151
5.2 The Electronic Speed Relay 165
5.3 Arrangements for Periodic Testing 166
5.4 Transitional Source of Power 167
5.5 Operating Instructions 168
5.6 Shore Supply or Cold Ironing 169
5.7 Relevant Rules 176

 

Chapter 6 – Isolated and Earthed Neutral Systems
Article No. Article Page No.
6.1 Electromagnetic Compatibility 181
6.2 Isolated and Earthed Neutral Systems 184
6.3 Grounding 187
6.4 Significance of Earth Faults 190
6.5 Multiple Systems 195
6.6 Causes of Earth Faults 195
6.7 Prevention of Earth Faults 197
6.8 Earth Fault Monitors and Alarms 198
6.9 Basics of a Digital Earth Fault Monitor 202
6.10 Detection and Clearance of an Earth Fault 203
6.11 Relevant Rules 207

 

Chapter 7 – Alternators
Article No. Article Page No.
7.1 The Basic Concept 211
7.2 The Elementary Alternator 213
7.3 Rotor and Stator 215
7.4 Armature and Field 216
7.5 Rotating Armature Alternators 216
7.6 Rotating Field Alternators 217
7.7 The Brushless Alternator 227
7.8 The High-voltage Brushless Alternator 234
7.9 Outline of Operation of a Brushless Alternator 236
7.10 Generator Heating 237
7.11 Shaft-driven Alternators 237
7.12 Exhaust Gas Turbo-generator System 248
7.13 Advantages of Shaft Generators 250
7.14 Disadvantages of Shaft Generators 250
7.15 High Voltage Systems 251
7.16 Alternator Starting 254
7.17 Harmonics 255
7.18 Relevant Rules 259
Chapter 8 – Automatic Voltage Regulators and Exciters
Article No. Article Page No.
8.1 Performance Requirements of Alternators 263
8.2 Operating Principle of an AVR 265
8.3 Exciters and Excitation Systems 265
8.4 Thyristor-based Static Automatic Voltage Regulator 268
8.5 Alternative Thyristor-based AVR Circuits 274
8.6 Transformer-based Static Excitation System 276
8.7 Transient Voltage Dip and Alternator Response 278
8.8 Effect of kW Loading 281
8.9 Effect of kVAr Loading 283
8.10 Additional (Important) Features in a Modern AVR 284
8.11 Relevant ABS Rules 293

 

Chapter 9 – Fixed and Portable Instrumentation
Article No. Article Page No.
9.1 The Basics 297
9.2 Measuring System Terminology 297
9.3 Some Useful Fundamentals 300
9.4 In-Circuit Meters 302
9.5 Out-of-Circuit Meters 303
9.6 Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Meter 303
9.7 Power Measurement 306
9.8 The Electrodynamometer Wattmeter 310
9.9 Theory of an Electrodynamometer Wattmeter 313
9.10 Shape of the Scale of an Electrodynamometer Wattmeter 315
9.11 Power in Poly-Phase Systems – Blondel’s Theorem 316
9.12 Measurement of Active Power in Three-Phase Circuits 316
9.13 Active Power Transducer 322
9.14 Power Factor Measurement 323
9.15 Frequency Meters 330
9.16 The Synchroscope 332
9.17 Instrument Transformers 337
9.18 Digital Instruments 341
9.19 Portable Measuring Instruments 345
9.20 Relevant Rules 361

 

Chapter 10 – Paralleling of Alternators
Article No. Article Page No.
10.1 The Basics 365
10.2 Manual Synchronising 368
10.3 Check-synchronising Unit 371
10.4 Automatic Synchronising 371
10.5 Synchronising with the Aid of Lamps 377
10.6 Synchronising with the Aid of a Voltmeter 379
10.7 Parallel Operation 380
10.8 Excitation Control 381
10.9 Throttle Control 383
10.10 Load Sharing 386
10.11 Speed Droop and Power Generation 399

 

Chapter 11 – Switchboards and Switchgear
Article No. Article Page No.
11.1 Switchboards 411
11.2 Bus bars 420
11.3 Instrumentation and Controls 424
11.4 The Circuit Breaker (CB) 427
11.5 Circuit Breakers for Alternators 432
11.6 Moulded Case Circuit Breakers (MCCBs) 444
11.7 Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCBs) 446
11.8 Residual Current Circuit Breakers (RCCBs) 448
11.9 Arc Fault Current Interrupters 449
11.10 Fused Isolators 450
11.11 Effect of Harmonics at Receptacle Load Centres 450
11.12 Corrective and Preventive Actions in Case of a Fire in the Main Switchboard 451
11.13 Relevant Rules 452

 

Chapter 12 – Starters for Alternating Current Motors
Article No. Article Page No.
12.1 The Basics of Starters 457
12.2 The Contactor 463
12.3 The Direct-on-line or D.O.L. Starter 465
12.4 The Star-delta Starter 489
12.5 Starting Torque of a Squirrel-cage Type of Motor 502
12.6 Autotransformer Starter 505
12.7 Electronic Starters 508
12.8 Automatic Starting of Standby Motors 527
12.9 Speed Control of Induction Motors 530

 

Chapter 13 – Fault Protection Devices
Article No. Article Page No.
13.1 Identifying the Need for Circuit Protection 539
13.2 Direct Shorts 540
13.3 Excessive Current 543
13.4 Excessive Heat 543
13.5 Over-voltage 544
13.6 Surge 545
13.7 Transients 547
13.8 Ripple 549
13.9 Spikes 549
13.10 Overload 550
13.11 Circuit Protection 550
13.12 Alternator and Associated Systems’ Protection 551
13.13 Protection Scheme on a High-voltage System (LNG Vessel) 565
13.14 Protection through Fuses 566
13.15 Protection Discrimination and Selective Coordination 589
13.16 Motor Protection 592
13.17 Cable Protection 605
13.18 Busbar Protection 606
13.19 Relevant Rules 607

 

Chapter 14 – Electric Cables
Article No. Article Page No.
14.1 The Basics 613
14.2 Conductors 614
14.3 Temperature Coefficient 615
14.4 Current Rating and Voltage Drop 615
14.5 Cable Sizes 617
14.6 US and British Comparative Sizes for Cables and Lines 617
14.7 Cable Testing 620
14.8 Electrical Cable Codes 621
14.9 Practical Tips on Wiring 626
14.10 Relevant Rules 629

 

Chapter 15 – Insulation and Ingress Protection
Article No. Article Page No.
15.1 The Basics 633
15.2 Classes of Insulation 634
15.3 Ageing of Insulation 636
15.4 Insulating Materials generally used in a Low to Medium Power AC Motor 637
15.5 Motor Ratings versus Temperature 638
15.6 Temperature Ratings 639
15.7 Temperature Rise 639
15.8 Determination of Hot Temperature 640
15.9 Conductor Insulation 643
15.10 Insulating Materials 646
15.11 Separators and Fillers 649
15.12 Cable Sheath 649
15.13 Cable Gland 652
15.14 Plugs and Sockets for Reefer Containers 654
15.15 Degrees of Protection for an Enclosure 655

 

Chapter 16 – Electrical Propulsion Systems
Article No. Article Page No.
16.1 Layout and General Features 661
16.2 Optimising Storage Space 664
16.3 Ships Equipped with an Auxiliary Propulsion System 665
16.4 Electrical Propulsion 667
16.5 Advantages of Electrical Propulsion 669
16.6 Disadvantages of Electrical Propulsion 670
16.7 Turbo-electric Propulsion 671
16.8 The Synchronous Motor 674
16.9 AC Single-Speed Drive with a Controllable Pitch Propeller 679
16.10 AC Induction Motor Drive with a Controllable Pitch Propeller 680
16.11 Fixed-Speed Alternators with Variable-Speed Synchronous Motors 682
16.12 Cycloconverter Method of Speed Control 683
16.13 Advanced Diesel-electric Propulsion Systems 684
16.14 Thruster Propulsion Systems 704
16.15 Relevant Rules 725

 

Chapter 17 – Steering Systems
Article No. Article Page No.
17.1 Fundamental Concepts 731
17.2 Synchros for Rudder Angle and Course Indication 747
17.3 The Rate of Turn Indicator 749
17.4 Steering Gear Testing and Drills 749
17.5 Relevant Rules 751

 

Chapter 18 – Deck Machinery
Article No. Article Page No.
18.1 The Anchor Windlass  755
18.2 Safety Cut-outs of Passenger Lifts 767
18.3 Deck Cranes  767
18.4 Deck Machinery Control Systems  769
18.5 Safety Features in Modern Cranes  779
18.6 Gantry Travelling Slewing Crane  783
18.7 Crane Checks Prior to Cargo Operation  783

 

Chapter 19 – Batteries and Battery Charging
Article No. Article Page No.
19.1 The Primary Cell 787
19.2 The Secondary Cell 788
19.3 Electrochemical Action 788
19.4 Battery Supplies 789
19.5 Lead-Acid Storage Batteries 790
19.6 The Wet or Flooded Cell 791
19.7 Maintenance-free Sealed Lead-acid Batteries 797
19.8 Electrical Characteristics of the Lead-acid Cell 802
19.9 Polarization of the Cell 809
19.10 Local Action 810
19.11 Nickel-Cadmium Storage Batteries 810
19.12 Silver-Zinc Cell 814
19.13 Silver-Cadmium Cell 814
19.14 Lithium Ion Battery for 406 MHz EPIRBs 815
19.15 Battery Charging 816
19.16 Charging of Lead-Acid Batteries 818
19.17 Charging of Nickel Cadmium Batteries 824
19.18 Thermal Runaway 825
19.19 Methods of Charging 826
19.20 Single-Rate and Two-Rate Battery Chargers 828
19.21 Automatic Thyristor-controlled Battery Charger 831
19.22 Lifeboat Battery Charger 837
19.23 Battery Installations and Safety Measures 838
19.24 First Aid Treatment for Contact due to Spillage 844
19.25 Reclaiming, Recycling and Re-using Lead Acid Batteries 844
19.26 Relevant Rules 845

 

Chapter 20 – Lighting Systems
Article No. Article Page No.
20.1 The Basics 853
20.2 Incandescent Lamps 855
20.3 Discharge Lamps 858
20.4 Hot Cathode Low Pressure Mercury Fluorescent Lamps 858
20.5 High Pressure Mercury Fluorescent Lamps 863
20.6 Low Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamps 864
20.7 High Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamps 864
20.8 Disposal of Lamps Containing Mercury 865
20.9 Lamp Caps 867
20.10 Effects of Voltage on the Performance of Lamps 868
20.11 Navigation and Signal Lights 868
20.12 Modern LED-based Navigation Lights 873
20.13 Signals for a Power-driven Ship Under Way (At Night) 873
20.14 Emergency Lighting 874
20.15 Relevant Rules 876

 

Chapter 21 – Gas Analysers
Article No. Article Page No.
21.1 The Combustible Gas Indicator (CGI) or Explosimeter 879
21.2 The Tankscope 884
21.3 Thick Film Technology Gas Analysis 889
21.4 Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide Analysis 891
21.5 Portable Oxygen Analyser – Model: Draeger E-11 894
21.6 Fixed Oxygen Analyser – Beckman Oxygen Analyser (Pauling Cell Type) 898
21.7 Beckman Oxygen Analyser (Munday Cell Type) 899
21.8 Zirconia Oxygen Analysis 903
21.9 Things to Remember in Gas Dangerous Areas 904
21.10 Relevant Rules 905

 

Chapter 22 – Alarm Indication Systems
Article No. Article Page No.
22.1 Fire Alarms and Detection 909
22.2 Heat Detectors 912
22.3 The Combustion Detector 914
22.4 Detectors Reacting to Radiation Emanating from Flames 917
22.5 The Fire Alarm Control Panel 919
22.6 Fire Fighting Systems 925
22.7 Modern Methods of Fire Detection and Suppression 930
22.8 Crankcase Oil Mist Detector 934
22.9 Dead Man Alarm 945
22.10 Miscellaneous Alarm Indication Systems 949
22.11 Scanning-type System 952
22.12 Communication Systems 959
22.13 Relevant Rules 960

 

Chapter 23 – Miscellaneous Systems
Article No. Article Page No.
23.1 Introduction 967
23.2 Cathodic Protection 967
23.3 Marine Growth Prevention System 982
23.4 Shaft Earthing System 984
23.5 Monitoring of Water Purity 989
23.6 Galley Equipment 993
23.7 Laundry Equipment 996
23.8 Water-tight Doors 997
23.9 Water Ingress Detection System for Cargo Holds 1003
23.10 Refrigerating Machinery 1003
23.11 The Reefer Container 1008
23.12 Air-conditioning Systems 1009

 

Chapter 24 – Maintenance and Troubleshooting
Article No. Article Page No.
24.1 The Basics of Maintenance 1027
24.2 Planned Preventive Maintenance 1028
24.3 Performance / Condition Monitoring 1037
24.4 Life Maintenance 1040
24.5 Breakdown or Corrective Maintenance 1040
24.6 Troubleshooting 1040
24.7 Maintenance of Specific Equipment 1050
24.8 Routine Maintenance Checklist Suggested by a few Classification Societies 1084
24.9 The Recommended List of Spares, Tools and Accessories for Maintenance 1086
24.10 Relevant Rules 1087

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